Mystery of Existence from Non-existence: What existed before the Big Bang?

Sunday 23 January 2022

Mysterious Mystery of Existence from Non-existence: What existed before the Big Bang or the Big Bang?

How did this universe come into being from non-existence or did anyone exist on the level we consider non-existence? This is a mysterious mystery. But these mysteries of nature have not stopped some physicists from trying to figure out the period before the universe came into being.


I believe that non-existence leads to non-existence. In order for a snake to come into existence, it is necessary to have the existence of a substance or component, and their acquisition must be possible, there must be something else. Where did the substance that caused the 'Big Bang' come from, and first of all, what happened to that substance? This question was asked by Peter from Australia.

Brian Cox, a well-known physicist in the BBC's recent series on the universe 'Universe', warned that 'the last star will slowly cool down and disappear. With its demise, the universe will be empty again, without light, without life, or without meaning.

With the fading of this last star, only an infinitely long, dark age will begin. All matter will eventually be swallowed up by the 'giant black hole' (black holes) of the giant temple of the universe, as a result of which the faintest glimmer of light will turn into vapor. The universe will always spread outwards so much that even the dim light will spread so much that its existence will almost disappear. In a sense, all activities in the universe will cease.

Will this really happen? Oddly enough, some cosmologists believe that a past, cool dark empty universe that exists in our distant future may be the source or cause of our own Big Bang. Could

The first article

But before we get to that point, let's take a look at how 'matter' - solid physical matter - first came into being. If we were to explain the origin of solid matter made up of atoms or molecules, then surely none of this existed around the Big Bang, nor did it exist for the millions of years that followed.

In fact, we have a good idea of ​​how the first atoms are formed of simple particles to stabilize complex matter once the conditions have cooled down enough. These atoms later merge into the heavier elements inside the stars. But this explanation does not answer the question of how the existence of a snake came into being from non-existence.

    So let's think even further back in time. The first long-lived particles of any kind were protons and neutrons, which combine to form the atom nucleus. They came into being about one-tenth of a second after the Big Bang. Prior to this point, there was really no substance in any of the familiar meanings of the word, but physics allows us to trace the timeline backward - to the physical process, to any solid matter. Predict

This discovery leads us to the concept of the so-called 'Great United Covenant'. So far we have come to the realm of speculative physics because we cannot create so much depth or depth in our experiments that we can investigate the processes that were going on at that time. But an understandable assumption is that the physical world was made up of short-lived primitive liquid-like matter (soup), including the 'building blocks of quarks, protons, and neutrons. Matter and 'antimatter' were present in almost equal amounts. Every particle of every kind of substance, like every quark, has a companion, like an 'image of a mirror', which is almost identical, differing only in one aspect. However, when matter and antimatter meet, they vanish in a flash of energy, meaning that these particles are constantly created and destroyed.


But first of all, how did the particles come into being? Quantum field theory tells us that even a space that corresponds to free space-time is filled with a solid physical activity in the form of energy fluctuations. This fluctuation can cause the particles to come out, and it disappears after a while. This may seem like a mathematical hypothesis rather than real physics, but such particles have been observed in countless experiments.

    During the space-time vacuum state of the space and time of non-existence, the particles are constantly being created and destroyed and are also being scorched, apparently, all this becomes a moment of 'existence from non-existence. But perhaps all of this really tells us that a quantum vacuum (despite its name) is an existing thing, not a non-existent name. The philosopher David Albert has made a monumental critique of the Big Ben theory, which in this way makes it possible to offer an explanation for the existence of a snake from non-existence.

Suppose we ask where 'space time' itself originated. We can then go back in time, literally into the ancient 'Planck Age' (a few very short moments immediately after Big Ben) - so early in the history of the universe that our physics The best ideas were scattered while studying it. This period is only one-millionth of a billionth of a second after the Big Bang. At this point space and time, themselves became subject to quantum fluctuations. Physicists generally work separately with quantum mechanics, studying the 'micro world' of particles with general relativity, which applies to large, cosmic scales. But in order to truly understand the Planck Age, we need a holistic theory of quantum gravity.

We do not yet have a complete theory of quantum gravity, but efforts are being made - such as string theory and loop quantum gravity. In these endeavors, common space and time are seen rising like waves on the surface of a deep sea. What we experience as space and time is the product of quantum processes that operate on a deep, microscopic surface - processes that do not mean much to us as creatures connected to the microscopic world.

We can say with the utmost confidence that so far physics has not found any convincing evidence that matter can come into being out of nothing.

Our common understanding of space and time in the Planck Age responds, so we can no longer rely on our general understanding of cause and effect. Yet all possible theories of quantum gravity describe a physical thing that was happening in the 'Planck era' --- some quantum precursor of common space and time. But where did it come from?

Even if a cause is not applied in a general way, it may be possible to explain the case of one part of the 'Planck-Epoch' universe in another way or in another way. Unfortunately, even our best physicists so far seem to have completely failed to provide answers to such questions. We will not be able to come up with a definitive answer unless we make further progress towards the 'theory of everything. At this point, we can say with maximum confidence that so far physics has not found any conclusive evidence that matter can come into being out of nothing.

The cycle of non-existence

In order to truly answer the question of how something can be created out of nothing, we need to explain the quantum state of the entire universe at the beginning of the Planck Age. All attempts to do so are based on conjecture. Some of them offer the idea of ​​a supernatural force, such as a single 'creator'. But descriptions of other possibilities lie in the realm of physics - such as a 'multiverse', in which an infinite number of parallel universes, or cyclical models of the universe, according to which it Universities are created and reborn once again.

The 2020 Nobel Prize-winning physicist Roger Penrose proposed an interesting but controversial model for a cyclical universe, dubbed 'Conformal Cyclic Cosmology'. Penrose was inspired by an interesting mathematical relationship between a very hot, dense, and solid, small state of the universe - as it was at the time of the Big Bang - and an extremely cold, empty, expansive state of the universe - as it were. The future is in the distant future. To explain this changing state, Penrose's basic theory is that when those conditions reach their limits, they become mathematically identical. Although this may sound contradictory, the complete absence of matter can succeed in giving rise to all the matter that we see around us in our universe.

According to this view, the Big Bang does not originate from almost anything. This is what remains when all the matter in the universe is consumed by black holes, which in turn boils down to photons - lost in a void. Thus the whole universe --- seen from another solid physical point of view - arises from something so close that it is impossible to comprehend. But it is still nothing. It is still a solid physical universe, albeit empty.

    How can the same condition be a cold, empty universe from one point of view and a hot, dense, and solid universe from another point of view? The answer lies in a complex mathematical procedure called 'conformal recalling, a geometric change that practically changes the shape of an object but does not change its shape.

Penrose showed how cold dense and solid-state and hot dense and solid-state could be related by such re-scaling so that they matched in terms of their spacetime shapes - not their size. It's hard to imagine how two things could be alike when they're different in size - but Penrose says the concept of size doesn't make sense in such a very solid physical environment.

In conformal cyclic cosmology, the direction of explanation goes from old and cold to young and warm: cold emptiness produces a warm dense and solid-state. But this 'cause' cannot be understood in this context - there is a reason behind it. It is not only the size that is irrelevant in these extreme cases but also the time that becomes irrelevant. Cold solid and solid-state and hot dense and solid-state occur on different timelines. The cold blank state will continue forever in its temporary geometry from the point of view of an observer but the hot dense and solid-state it gives rise to effectively populates its entirely new timeline.

This can help to understand the hot, dense, and solid-state, just as the cold empty state creates it for no apparent reason. Perhaps we should say that the hot dense and solid-state emerges from the cold empty state, or exists in this state, or is felt. These are typical metaphysical theories that have been widely explored by philosophers of science, especially in the context of quantum gravity, where common cause and effect are beyond comprehension. It becomes difficult to separatephysics and philosophy within the limits of our knowledge.

Experimental evidence?

Conformal cyclic cosmology offers some detailed but speculative answers to the question of where our Big Bang came from. But even if Penrose's view is corroborated by future advances in cosmology, we may think that we have not yet answered a profound philosophical question - the question of whether solid physical reality itself Where did it come from? How did the whole system of this cycle come into being?

Then we end with the pure question of why a snake exists, why we don't ask why there is nothing - this is one of the biggest questions in metaphysics.

But here our focus is on the explanations that fall into the realm of physics. There are three broad possible explanations for this important question: How did the journey from the present to the non-existent repeat or 'cycles' begin? There could be no concrete explanation for this. Or there may be endless repetitive cycles, each universe on its own, with the initial quantum state of each universe being defined before any of the features of the universe. Or it could be a single cycle, and a recurring universe, with the beginning of this cycle, explained by a feature of its own end. The latter two approaches avoid the need for any unreasonable events - and this creates a certain interest in them. Nothing will be left unclear in physics.

Penrose imagines a series of endless new cycles, partly for reasons related to his preferred interpretation of the quantum theory. In quantum mechanics, a solid physical system exists at the adaptation or 'superposition' of many variations at the same time, and when we measure it, it simply 'picks one' without any sequence. For Penrose, each epoch consists of random quantum events that emerge in a different way - that is, each cycle will be different from the events before and after it. This is actually good news for experimental physicists, as it could give us a glimpse of the ancient universe, which gave birth to us through blurred marks or anomalies in the radiation that survived the Big Bang seen through the Planck satellite. Had given

Penrose and his colleagues believe they may have already seen the signs that attribute the pattern in Planck data to radiation emanating from massive black holes in the previous universe. However, his claims have been challenged by other physicists and no final decision has been made yet.

    Endless new 'cycles' are the key to Penrose's vision. But there is a natural way to transform conformal cyclic cosmology from a 'multi-cycle' to a 'cycle' form. Physical reality then consists of a 'cycling' through the Big Bang to the most empty state in the future - and then re-creating the same universe around the same Big Bang.

This latter possibility corresponds to another interpretation of quantum mechanics, called the interpretation of many worlds. The interpretation of many worlds tells us that whenever we measure a system that is in superposition, this measurement does not randomly select a state. Instead, the result of the measurement we see is only a possibility - one that appears in our own universe. The results of other measurements appear in 'Multiverse' in all other universes, which are disconnected from our universe.

So no matter how small the probability of an object being, if it has a non-zero probability, it occurs in a quantum parallel world. People like you in other worlds are lucky or have been swept away in the clouds of a strange storm, or an unintentional fire has started, or all three of these things have happened at the same time. Our Big Bang may be the event of the rebirth of our multiverse universe, which contains innumerable universes at the same time.

Some people think that such parallel universes can also be observed in cosmological data, as impressions are created by collisions with our universe.

The quantum theory of many worlds gives a new twist to conformal cyclical cosmology, although it is not something that Penrose agrees with. Our Big Bang could be the rebirth of a single quantum multiverse, in which an infinite number of different universes coexist. Everything is possible - then the journey between the non-existent and the present is repeated.

An ancient story

For a philosopher of science, Penrose's point of view is fascinating. This opens up new possibilities for explaining the Big Bang, taking our explanations beyond a common cause and effect. So this is an excellent test case for exploring the different ways in which physics can explain our world. It deserves more attention from philosophers.

For lovers of fairy tales, Penrose's vision is beautiful and captivating. In Penrose's preferred multi-cycle form, it promises the existence of endless new worlds created from the ashes of its ancestors. In the form of a bicycle, it is again a wonderful modern feast of the ancient idea of ​​the 'Oroboros', or world snake (Oroboros is an ancient symbol depicting snakes or dragons eating their own tails). In Norwegian mythology, Yurmungander Nag is the child of a cunning trickster, Loki, and the giant goddess Ingarbuda. But this legendary character of 'Ouroboros' is mentioned in many ancient stories of the world, including ancient Egypt.

The concept of 'Ouroboros', a universe revolving between non-existent and non-existent, is truly wonderful for us. In its belly is our own universe, as well as every strange and wonderful alternative possible universe allowed by quantum physics - and at the point where its head meets its tail, it is complete. As empty as it is, it is still traveling with a temperature of 100 trillion degrees Celsius.

Even the gourd in various guises will be impressed by this amazing journey.

Alastair Wilson is a professor of philosophy at the University of Birmingham.

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